Shadowland® 'Autumn Frost'. Photo by: Proven Winners.

Hostas are popular shade plants for woodland and shady gardens across much of the country. Sometimes called funkia or plantain lily, hostas are attractive, easy-care, long-lived perennials providing garden interest from spring to fall. They offer a range of sizes, leaf shapes and colored foliage, as well as spikes of purple or white bell-like hosta flowers that are sometimes fragrant.

On this page: Basics | Planting Hostas | Hosta Care | Hosta Varieties | Seasonal Calendar | Common Problems | Design Ideas

HOSTA BASICS

Zones:

3-9

Height/Spread:

Varies from 6 to 8 inches tall and 18 to 24 inches wide, to 48 inches tall and 6 feet wide, with many sizes in between.

Exposure:

Dappled or partial shade; all hostas need some sunlight. Blue, green, and variegated hostas will do better in slightly deeper shade, while yellow and gold ones need more light to bring out their colors. Those with more substantial foliage can tolerate full sun in cooler zones, if given enough regular water.

Foliage:

Varies; smooth, veined, waxy, cupped, heavily puckered, ruffled, or curled and twisted. Choose from a wide variety of hosta leaf colors, patterns and shapes:

  • Shades from apple green to dark spruce, sunny yellow, grayish-blue, and blue-green leaves
  • Variegated with white or gold edges or centers
  • Shapes from long and narrow to wide and heart shaped

2021 Hosta of the Year:

Shadowland® 'Wheee!'

PLANTING HOSTAS

When to plant:

Plant in spring when new shoots appear. This is also a good time to divide and transplant established clumps. However, early fall is also an option, especially if you want your plants to look more established come spring.

Where to plant:

Generally, hostas prefer to be out of direct sunlight. Most will tolerate morning sun, but need shade during the hottest part of the day. They are often planted beneath trees, but don’t like competition from shallow-rooted trees.

How to plant:

Dig a wide planting hole, as hosta roots can grow to one foot deep and two feet wide. Untangle the plant’s roots and rest them atop a mound of soil created in the center of the hole. Backfill and water thoroughly. Bare root plants should be soaked for several hours before planting to rehydrate the roots.

Soil:

Hostas grow best in good loamy soil that is enriched with organic matter, such as compost.

CARING FOR HOSTAS

Watering:

Keep consistently moist. Add mulch to help reduce fluctuations & avoid dry conditions. Water deeply to encourage the roots to grow further down into the soil. Those exposed to more sun will require more water.

Division:

It often takes four to five years for plants to mature, and division usually isn't necessary before this time. When dividing hostas in spring, wait for the "eyes" to pop out from the soil so you can distinguish how many there are and where to make a cut. If you divide in fall, make sure you give the roots enough time to reestablish before cold weather.

Deer:

Deer devour hostas; regular use of different repellents can help, or install deer fencing.(Learn more about how to keep deer away.)

Slugs and snails:

The best prevention is to remove weeds and decaying leaves from around hostas. Consider varieties such as 'Hudson Bay' or 'Wheee!', from the Shadowland® series, that have thicker leaves, giving them better slug resistance.

Containers:

When growing hosta plants in pots, drainage is crucial. Make sure the container has drainage holes and that the potting mix you use promotes drainage. Water container-grown plants more frequently and bring them into the garage or another protected place for the winter.

HOSTA VARIETIES

Swipe to view slides

Photo by: Proven Winners.

SHADOWLAND® 'WHEEE!'Buy now from Proven Winners

Height/spread:

11-18 inches tall, 28-30 inches wide

Flowers:

Light lavender flowers bloom mid summer

Ruffled green leaves with cream margins are thicker than other hostas, making it more resistant to slug damage.

2021 National Hosta of the Year

Photo by: Proven Winners.

SHADOWLAND® 'COAST TO COAST'Buy now from Proven Winners

Height/spread:

Up to 30 inches tall, 36 inches wide

Flowers:

Pale violet flowers bloom late summer

Thick, wavy foliage pops in a mixed bed or container. Foliage color transitions from chartreuse-yellow in spring to lighter gold in summer.

2020 National Hosta of the Year

Photo by: Proven Winners.

SHADOWLAND® 'AUTUMN FROST'Buy now from Proven Winners

Height/spread:

12 inches tall, 24 inches wide

Flowers:

Lavender flowers bloom mid to late summer

Striking frosty blue leaves with wide, bright yellow margins that fade to creamy white.

Photo by: Proven Winners.

SHADOWLAND® 'EMPRESS WU'Buy now from Proven Winners

Height/spread:

3-4 feet tall, 5-6 feet wide

Flowers:

Reddish-violet flowers bloom early to mid-summer

The largest known hosta available!

Photo by: Proven Winners.

SHADOWLAND® 'DIAMOND LAKE'Buy now from Proven Winners

Height/spread:

17 inches tall, 45 inches wide

Flowers:

Pale lavender flowers bloom early summer

Large blue hosta with thick, corrugated, heart-shaped leaves with wavy margins.

Photo by: J. Paul Moore.

‘MINUTEMAN’

Height/spread:

24 inches tall, 36 inches wide

Flowers:

Lavender flowers bloom in early summer

Often confused with ‘Patriot’. Both have irregular, wide white margins on dark green leaves.

Photo by: J. Paul Moore.

‘SUM AND SUBSTANCE’

Height/spread:

24 inches tall, 36 inches wide

Flowers:

Pale lavender flowers bloom in summer

A sun-tolerant, giant hosta. Leaf color depends on sun exposure—golden with more light, chartreuse with less.

Photo by: Manfred Ruckszio / Shutterstock.

‘GUACAMOLE’

Height/spread:

18 inches tall, 48 inches wide

Flowers:

White flowers bloom mid summer

Chartreuse-gold leaves, dark margins and distinctive veining. The golden leaf color becomes brighter if grown in more light.

Photo by: Peter Turner Photography / Shutterstock.

‘JUNE’

Height/spread:

12 inches tall, 30 inches wide

Flowers:

Pale lavender flowers bloom mid summer

Heart-shaped, gray-blue leaves with yellow and yellow-green variegation are thicker and less likely to incur slug damage.

Photo by: Manfred Ruckszio / Shutterstock.

'HALCYON'

Height/spread:

24 inches tall, 36 inches wide

Flowers:

Lavender-gray flowers bloom mid summer

The bright gray-blue leaves of this variety are known for retaining their color well.

Photo by: Blidagentur Zoonar GmbH / Shutterstock.

‘BLUE MOUSE EARS’

Height/spread:

12 inches tall, 12 inches wide

Flowers:

Lavender flowers bloom mid summer

A miniature hosta with thick, curled leaves that look like mouse ears. This small hosta is a good choice for containers or rock gardens.

SEASONAL CALENDAR

Spring:

Hosta shoots emerge in early spring, with the leaves unfurling a few weeks later and reaching their mature size by late spring (the process takes 6-8 weeks in total).

  • A good time to divide and transplant hostas
  • Apply a slow-release fertilizer
  • Begin slug control and spray deer repellent
  • Protect shoots from late freezes with cloth, pots, newspaper, or extra mulch
  • Examine for signs of Hosta Virus X (see below for more information)

Summer:

Most hostas bloom in mid- to late summer, for about 3 weeks. After flowering, new buds begin forming at the base for next spring.

  • Watch for leaf margins turning brown, a sign of hosta scorch
  • Don’t allow soil to dry out; this can cause heat dormancy or dry rot
  • Cut back on watering at the end of summer to encourage dormancy

Fall:

Hosta greenery begins to die back in response to frost, first turning gold, then drying out and drooping.

  • Cut back leaves and flower scapes
  • Clean up debris around plants and apply mulch
  • Water well prior to the first freeze

Winter:

Plants enter a winter dormancy, leaves drop and plants appear lifeless. During this time, the roots are storing energy for spring.

  • Water occasionally if you live in a dry winter climate
  • Re-cover with mulch if exposed by frost heave
  • Wait for them to return in spring

COMMON HOSTA PROBLEMS

Hosta Virus X causes mottled leaf coloring, brown spots, or leaves that appear lumpy twisted. It is spread from one plant to another by contaminated tools or hands, so always clean and sterilize tools. Infected plants should be disposed of, not composted. Learn more from Missouri Botanical Garden.

Hosta scorch causes leaves to turn yellow and crispy at the edges. Plants grown in full sun and poor soil are more susceptible. Protect hostas from intense sunlight, especially during the heat of midday and water early in the day. Remove scorched leaves and consider transplanting to a shadier location in your garden.

Frost damage can affect hosta plants during early spring. Plants will appear limp and crinkled. If frost is in the forecast, cover your hostas and water well. Remove any frost-damaged foliage as it is susceptible to diseases. Plants will often produce a second flush of leaves after frost damage.

Foliar nematodes are tiny roundworms that invade the tissue of hosta leaves, creating yellow and brown discoloration between leaf veins. Foliar nematodes spread primarily via water, but can also be transferred between plants by unsterilized garden tools. To prevent their spread, avoid overhead watering and sanitize your tools. Infected plants should be destroyed; do not compost.

DESIGNING WITH HOSTAS

Shade Plant Inspiration

The wide range of sizes among hosta plants inspires a variety of uses, from a striking focal point to edging or ground cover. Hostas contribute the all-important element of texture to a garden, and a collection with varying foliage colors and shapes is visually interesting even without flowers.

Ideas for using hosta plants in your garden:

  • Bold-leaved hostas provide contrast to lacy plants such as ferns and astilbe, or linear foliage such as sedges or liriope.
  • Keep things in proportion—supersized Shadowland® 'Empress Wu' will overshadow a small fern.
  • Pair with summer-dormant plants such as Virginia bluebells to provide long-lasting interest.
  • Hosta leaves are great additions to a bouquet or foliage arrangements.
  • Use larger hosta leaves as placemats for alfresco meals.
  • Hostas with white-variegated leaves or white flowers, like Shadowland® Etched Glass make great additions to a moonlight garden.

Hosta companion plants: Many plants grow well with hostas, such as: spring bulbs, ferns, wildflowers, astilbe, golden hakone grass, lungwort, bugloss, bleeding heart, euphorbia, and hellebores.

Last updated: June 2, 2021

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